Below is a map of various artifacts discovered on the 80 acre Painted Pony Resort Property
Double sided mmtate found at the South end of the Painted Pony Runway
The San Simon Valley as part of the basin and range physio-graphic province of the Southwest has been at the cross roads of many cultures through time. Cultures which were centered in other areas of the Southwest found expression at sites in New Mexico's San Simon Valley. Beginning with the Paleo-Indian (ca. 11,500–9,500 b.p.) and typified by The Clovis Culture, whose documentation is primarily in the form of stone spear points and kill site assemblages. The Paleo-Indians are found in Learner, Murray Springs, and Naco which lie to the West in Sulphur Springs Valley. Evidence of Clovis has been found in Hidalgo County. Followed by the Archaic period (9,500–2,000 b.p.) which found it's expression in the Cochise Culture, one phase of which was described at the Double Adobe site in Sulphur Springs Valley and subsequently from sites including the San Simon Valley. Originally considered a pre-ceramic culture, the Cochise culture spans period with the introduction of agriculture, specifically corn, and the late phase included the introduction of pithouses. These Paleo-Indian peoples occupied the area up to about 2000 years ago. The Cochise tradition gave way to the Mogollon Peoples which encompassed a large area of Arizona and New Mexico. The Mogollon Along with the Hohokam and the Mongollan Culture followed by the Salado peoples all occupied the San Simon Valley at some point in time.
Cerro de Trincheras or fortified hilltops have been recognized across Arizona and northern Mexico, though only 4 are known to exist in New Mexico . These unique sites are characterized by low walls and/or terraces surrounding a hilltop. First described from a site in Sonora Mexico trincheras have been found close to major population centers like Tucson . The trincheras were constructed during 3 different time periods by different cultures. The earliest date from about 1000 B.C.E. followed by a group dating from 200- 600 C.E. and a late period of construction between 1200 - 1350 C.E. Within the trinchera tradition a specific cultural group has been identified. Characterized by purple on red polychrome pottery it has been suggested that this culture is part of the Hohokam complex but based on analyses of pottery distribution this idea is in dispute (1). Recently 2 undescribed Trinchera sites in the San Simon Valley were found and published. These newly discovered trinchera sites are currently undated and their relationship to other trinchera sites in New Mexico such as Canador Peak are unknown.
1. Brand, Donald D. The Distribution of Pottery Types in Northwest Mexico. American Anthropologist 1935 Vol. 37 287-305.